The social partners have the key role in defining standards for VET qualifications to ensure the relevance to the labour market and the certification of the training. A VET qualification in apprenticeship systems is typically broad in nature embedding key competences and laying the foundation for lifelong learning.
Training regulations are modernised regularly in order to meet the requirements of working life. The initiative for the introduction of a new regulation or the updating of an existing regulation is made by the affected sectors, the social partners, or the Ministry of Economy. Statistical data or skills forecasting studies also play a role, albeit a minor one, when new apprenticeships are introduced.
Read more: Developing Qualifications in Austria
The national qualification standards are developed by the trade committees, are described in learning outcomes and fall within the legal framework approved by the Minister of Education. A specific template for describing the qualifications and program proposals is provided by the Ministry of Education.
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In Germany apprenticeship training can only take place in state recognized training occupations. The training regulations define the content of the training in an occupation. They are elaborated together with experts from the relevant occupation in a formal procedure.
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The curricula and assessment framework of VET programmes are elaborated by curricular teams composed of representatives of the school and the labour market side. This composition makes sure that the learning outcomes of the VET programmes closely correspond with the demand of the labour market. The curricular teams also elaborate the integrated projects which are national tests organised at the end of DAP and DT programmes and evaluated by a tripartite assessment commission.
Read more: Developing Qualifications in Luxembourg
VET qualifications are developed in the public-private partnership of VET. Each VET programme has its legal basis in a VET ordinance issued by SERI. VET curricula are drawn up by a committee and form the foundation for the VET teaching concept, the structure of the vocational training and the assessment of the competences of the apprentice in all three learning environments.
Read more: Developing Qualifications in Switzerland